Full Technical General

Introduction to Structures

1
Acknowledgement
2
Introduction
3
Stresses and Strains that affect Aircraft Structures
4
Effects of Strain
5
Elasticity of Material
6
Creep in Materials
7
Strain Ratio
8
Shock Load
9
Fatigue in Materials
10
Fatigue Cracking
11
Forces that act on Structures and Materials
12
In Fligh
13
Other Factors to be Considered
14
On the Ground
15
On Take Off
16
Design Philosophy
17
Primary Structure
18
Secondary Structure
19
Tertiary Structure
20
Parts
21
Critical Parts
22
Major Parts
23
Table of Probabilities
24
Design Limit Load
25
Proof Load
26
Design Ultimate Load
27
Catastrophic Failure
28
Safe Life
29
Failsafe Structure
30
Damage Tolerant structure
31
Servicing Cycle
32
Materials used in Construction of Aircraft
33
Composite Materials
34
Advantages of Composite Materials
35
Disadvantages of Composite Materials
36
Lightning Strikes

Fuselage Structures

1
Acknowledgement
2
Introduction
3
Frame Construction
4
Monocoque Construction
5
Semi-Monocoque construction
6
Reinforced Shell
7
Riveting, Bonding, Milling and Etching
8
Pressure Bulkheads
9
Cabin Floor
10
Blow Out Bungs
11
Flight Deck Windows
12
Direct vision windows
13
Passenger Cabin Windows
14
GA Aircraft Windows
15
Doors Light Aircraft
16
Doors for Aircraft certified under JAR 23 and 25
17
Doors for Large Aircraft
18
Sealing
19
Seat Mounting Support Structure
20
Spar Attachment
21
Fuselage Shape
22
Jet engine
23
Fuselage Profile and Tricycle Undercarriage
24
Tail Bumper
25
Fuselage Mounted Engine

Wing Structures

1
Acknowledgements
2
Introduction
3
Biplane
4
Braced Monoplane
5
Cantilever Monoplane
6
Components of Wing Structure
7
Stringer
8
Ribs
9
Spars
10
Torsion Box
11
Modern Wing Design
12
Wing Loading
13
Wing Mounted landing Gear
14
Monoplane Centre Wing Section / Fuselage Section
15
Wing Location
16
High Wing
17
Low Wing
18
Mid Wing
19
Hip Wing
20
Fairing Panels
21
Dihedral Angle
22
Anhedral Angle
23
Sweep Back Angle
24
Wash Out
25
Wing Tips and Winglets
26
Wing Tip Vortex
27
High Aspect ratio and Elliptical Wings
28
Modified Tip Caps
29
Tip Tanks
30
Winglets
31
Wing Mounted Engines
32
Engine Chine / Strake
33
Wing Mounted Engines Spread Angle

Empennage or Tailplane

1
Acknowledgements
2
Introduction
3
Positive Static Stability
4
Fin’s Stability Function
5
Fin Structure
6
Fin- Fuselage Relationship
7
Nacelles Affect on Stability
8
Lift
9
Stalling Angle
10
Fin Surface Area
11
Lever Arm
12
Motive Power
13
Airspeeds
14
Ventral Fin and Strakes
15
High Mach Numbers
16
Wing Plan Form
17
Location of Tailplane
18
Propeller Effects
19
Multi Fin Design
20
Dorsal Fin
21
Tailplane Introduction
22
Couples Formed by Lift and Mass
23
Couples Formed by Thrust and Drag
24
Static Stability Function
25
Size of Tailplane
26
Forces Acting on a Tailplane in Flight
27
Lifting Tailplane
28
Tailplane Construction
29
H Tail
30
Location
31
T Tail
32
Propeller Wash and Down Wash
33
Angle of Incidence
34
Delta Aircraft
35
V Tail
36
Canards
37
Flying Wing

Primary and Secondary Flight Controls

1
Acknowledgements
2
Introduction
3
The Reference Axes
4
Longitudinal
5
Lateral
6
Normal
7
Primary Controls Surfaces – Conventional Aeroplanes
8
Aileron
9
Elevator
10
Rudder
11
Function of Primary Control Surfaces
12
Range of Movement
13
Structure
14
Flight Deck Controls
15
Control Column
16
Rudder Control
17
Push – Pull Type Yoke
18
Control Wheel and Column
19
Side Stick
20
Control System Linkage
21
Cable Tension
22
Control Cables
23
Control Rods
24
Control Stops
25
Primary Stops
26
Secondary Stops
27
Hydraulic Control Systems
28
Power Assist or Boost
29
Power Control Units
30
PCU Schematic
31
PCU Release Unit
32
PCU With Internal Interconnecting Valves
33
Primary Control Surface Design And Development
34
Flutter
35
Mass Balance
36
Aerodynamic Balancing
37
Inset Hinges
38
Horn Balance
39
Internal Balance Panel
40
Hinge Moment
41
Stick Gearing – Mechanical Advantage
42
Adverse Yawing Effect In Plain Ailerons
43
Differential Aileron
44
Rudder Aileron Interlink
45
Frise Ailerons
46
Fixed Tabs
47
Balance Tab
48
Trim Tabs
49
Trim Function for PCU Operated Controls
50
Electrical Trim Actuators
51
Secondary Control Position Indicators
52
Primary Control Surfaces Operated By Servo Tabs
53
Spring Servo Tab
54
Horizontal Stabilator
55
Anti Balance Tab
56
Anti Balance Trim Tab
57
Slab or All Flying Tailplane
58
Elevons
59
Variable Incidence Tailplane – Trimming Tailplane
60
Butterfly or V Tail Aircraft
61
Control Locks
62
Stick Position Stability
63
Stick Force Gradient
64
Stick Centred Springs
65
Down Springs
66
Bob Weights
67
Artificial Feel
68
Spring Feel
69
Basic Q Feel System
70
Hydraulic Q Feel
71
Roll Control for Air Transport Aircraft
72
Wing Mounted Speed Brake / Lift Dumpers
73
Flight Operation
74
Load Alleviation Function
75
Airbrakes and High Speed Flight At High Altitude
76
Ground Operation
77
Fuselage Mounted Airbrakes
78
Droop Ailerons
79
Fly by Wire
80
Weight Reduction
81
Weight Reduction
82
Control Response
83
Built in Control Parameters
84
Gust Load Alleviation

Flight Controls-High Lift Devices

1
Lift Augmentation – High Lift devices
2
Trailing Edge Flaps
3
Plain Flap
4
Split Flap
5
Slotted Flap
6
Double Slotted Flap
7
Zap Flap
8
Fowler Flaps
9
Double Slotted Fowler Flap
10
Blown Flaps
11
Leading Edge Devices
12
Slots
13
Fixed Slats
14
Movable Slats – Controlled Slats
15
Movable Slats – Automatic Slats
16
Leading Edge Flaps
17
Kruger Flaps
18
Boundary Layer Control
19
Effectiveness of Flaps and Slats
20
Flap Operation and Indication
21
Basic Flap System for a Light Aircraft
22
Flap Controls for other than a Basic Light Aircraft
23
Advanced Light Aircraft
24
Air Transport Aircraft
25
Flaps Operated by Independent Hydraulic Actuator
26
Flaps Operated by Power Drive Unit
27
Fly by Wire Flap and Slat System
28
Flap and Slat Indication

Landing Gear – Undercarriages

1
Acknowledgements
2
Introduction
3
Requirements for a Modern Undercarriages
4
Drag and Undercarriages
5
Landing
6
Suspension /Shock Absorbers Systems for Light Aircraft
7
Bungee Cords / Bungee Blocks
8
Spring Steel
9
Torsion Bar
10
Basic Principle of an Oleo Pneumatic Shock Absorber
11
Gas Charge
12
Oil Charge
13
Unseparated Oleo Pneumatic Shock Absorber
14
Torque Links
15
Heavy landings
16
Oil Charge Leaks or Losses
17
Propeller Clearance
18
Separated Oleo Pneumatic Shock Absorber
19
Unloaded
20
Landing Load
21
Recoil
22
Static Load
23
Undercarriage Layout
24
Tail Wheel
25
Fully Castering Tail Wheel
26
Tail Wheel –Ground Looping
27
Lockable Tail Wheel – Pilot Operated
28
Lockable Tail Wheel – Load Operated
29
Tail Wheels and Drag
30
Tail Wheel and Ground Manoeuvring
31
Tail Wheel and Nosing Over
32
Nose Wheel
33
Fully Catering Nose Wheel
34
Steerable Nose Wheel – Light Aircraft with Fixed Undercarriages
35
Steerable Nose Wheel – Light Aircraft with Retractable Undercarriages
36
Shimmy Damper for Light Aircraft
37
Hydraulic Shimmy Damper
38
Steerable Nose Wheel – Medium and Heavy Aircraft
39
Nose Wheel Rumble
40
Body Gear Steering
41
Turning Circle
42
Nose Wheel Steering Disconnect
43
Main Gear Bays Low Winged Aircraft
44
High Winged Turbo Props
45
High Winged Turbine Aircraft
46
Wheel Layout
47
Bogies
48
Bogie Trim and Trail
49
Hop Dampers
50
Retractable Main Undercarriage for Air Transport Aircraft
51
Over Centre – Geometric Locks
52
Up Locks
53
Emergency Lowering
54
Main Undercarriage Doors
55
Large Aircraft Undercarriage Indications
56
Mechanical Indicators
57
Air / Ground Logic
58
Micro Switches
59
Proximity Switches
60
Pressure Switches
61
Undercarriage Down Safety Lock
62
Ground Locks
63
Retractable Undercarriages – Light Aircraft
64
Operation of a Power Pack System
65
Light Aircraft Undercarriage Selector and Indications
66
Skis and Bear Paws
67
Floats

Landing Gear - Wheels - Tyres and Brakes

1
Acknowledgements
2
Introduction to Brakes
3
Types of Wheel Brakes
4
Expander Type Brakes
5
Brake Master Cylinder
6
Simple Hydraulic Brake System
7
Light Aircraft Fixed Disc
8
Fixed Brake Housing – Sliding Disc
9
Heavy Duty Discs
10
Boosted Brakes
11
Power Brakes
12
Braking Redundancy
13
Anti-skid Systems
14
Mechanical On/Off Anti –skid Systems
15
Modulating Valve
16
Electronic Anti-skid System
17
Semi Modulating System
18
Fully Modulating System
19
Touch Down Protection and Braking Efficiency
20
Auto Brake System
21
Rejected Take Off
22
Multi Plate Disc Brake
23
Retraction Pin and Automatic Wear Adjuster
24
Sticking and Dragging Brakes
25
Brake Wear
26
Brake Chatter / Brake Fade
27
Brake Temperature
28
Recommended Taxiing Speed
29
Brake Cooling
30
Brake Overheat
31
Spongy Brake Operation
32
Wheels and Tyres
33
Types of Wheel Hub
34
Well Based
35
Detachable Flange
36
Split Hub
37
Fusible Plug
38
Regions of a Tyre
39
Structure of a Tyre
40
Radial Belted Tyre
41
Footprint Area
42
Tubed Tyres
43
Tubeless Tyres
44
Vent Holes Tubeless Tyres
45
Vent Holes Tubed Tyres
46
Tyre Markings
47
Balance Marker
48
Tyre Pressure Classification
49
Circumferentially Grooved Tyre Tread
50
Circumferentially Grooved Tyre Wear Indication
51
Reinforced Tread
52
Block Tread
53
Marstrand Tyres
54
Chined Tyres
55
Tyre Inflation Medium
56
Tyre Inflation for BEM Load
57
Tyre Stretch
58
Dissipation
59
Effects of Ambient Temperature on Tyre Pressure
60
Cold Tyre Pressure Check
61
Hot Tyre Pressure Check
62
Flight Deck Pressure Indication
63
Aquaplaning
64
Reverted Rubber Aquaplaning
65
Dynamic Aquaplaning
66
Cross Ply and Radial Tyres
67
Aquaplaning Speed for Ribbed Tyres
68
Viscous Aquaplaning
69
Action to Minimise Aquaplaning on Landing
70
Tyre Damage
71
Dry Braking Flat Spot
72
Wet Braking Flat Spot
73
Bulges and Delamination
74
FOD
75
Burst Tyre
76
Cut Tyre
77
Tread Chunking
78
Chevron Cuts
79
Heavy Cross Wind Landing
80
Crown Wear
81
Shoulder Wear
82
Side Wall Cracking
83
Excessive Brake Heat
84
Contamination Of Tyre
85
Flat Spots due to Nylon Set

Hydraulics

1
Acknowledgements
2
Introduction
3
Basic Physics of Hydraulics
4
Relationship between Force, Area and Pressure
5
SI System
6
Imperial System
7
Unit Conversion Factor – 3 Places Decimal
8
Transmission of power
9
Multiplication of Force
10
Passive Hydraulic Systems
11
Fluid Pressure into Mechanical Force and Movement
12
Linear Actuators
13
Selectors
14
Non Return Valves
15
Hand Pumps
16
Active Hydraulic Systems
17
Pressure Generation
18
Electrically Operated Pumps
19
Low Pressure System Pumps
20
Engine as the Power Source
21
Open Centred System – using Open Centred Selectors
22
Pressure Reducing Valve -PRV
23
Open Centred System – using an Off Loading or Unloading valve
24
Closed Centred System
25
Pressure Generation and Fluid Supply
26
Closed Systems
27
High Pressure Engine Driven Pumps
28
Filtration
29
Pressure Regulation
30
Accumulators
31
Constant Pressure Pump
32
Fluids
33
Seals and Sealing
34
System Reservoir
35
Hydraulic Systems
36
Priority Services
37
Hydraulic Motors
38
Power Transfer Unit
39
Ram Air Turbine
40
Restrictors
41
Sequence Valve
42
Shuttle Valve
43
Pressure Reducing Valve
44
Thermal Relief Valve
45
Direct reading Gauges
46
Pressure Transmitters
47
Hydraulic Fuse

Fuel

1
Introduction
2
Volatility
3
Vapour Pressure
4
Flash Point
5
Fire Point
6
Auto Ignition Temperature
7
Flammability Limits
8
Fluidity
9
Freezing Point
10
Aviation Gasoline
11
Chemical Stability
12
Aviation Kerosene
13
Water Contamination
14
Water Sediment Checks
15
Fuel Tank Types
16
Unusable Fuel, Stack Pipe and Sump
17
Gravity Feed Fuel Systems for a Singe Engine Light Aircraft
18
Primer Pump
19
Manually Operated Fuel Selector
20
Pressure Feed Fuel Systems for a Singe Engine Light Aircraft
21
Fuel System for a Light Twin Engine Aircraft
22
Venting of Light Aircraft Tanks
23
Light Aircraft Fuel Fillers and Caps
24
Light Aircraft Fuel Quantity Indications
25
Large Aircraft Fuel Systems
26
Introduction
27
Fuel Tanks
28
Tank Pressurisation and Venting
29
Fuel System for a Twin Jet
30
Engine Fuel Supply
31
Booster Pumps
32
Collector Tank
33
Pressure Switches
34
Non Return Valves
35
Thermal Relief
36
Suction Valve
37
Low Pressure Fuel Cock – LP Cock
38
Fuel Filter
39
Flight Deck Fuel Control Panel
40
Auxiliary Power Unit Fuel Supply
41
Under Wing Single Point Pressurised Refuel System
42
Capacitive Fuel Contents Measuring System
43
Fuel Jettisoning
44
Fuel Trimming
45
Refuelling and Defuelling
46
Open Line Refuelling
47
Pressure Refuelling from a Bowser
48
Hydrant Refuelling
49
Refuelling/Defuelling With Passengers Embarking, on Board or
50
Disembarking
51
Refuelling/Defuelling With Wide Cut Fuel
52
CAP 74 Aircraft Fuelling – Fire Prevention and Safety Measures
53
Fuelling Areas
54
Fuelling Zones
55
Aerodrome Fire Service
56
Fire Extinguishers
57
Fire Warnings
58
Overheated Undercarriage Assemblies
59
Supervision of Fuelling
60
Clear Exit Paths
61
Staffing of Fuel Vehicles
62
Fuelling Zone
63
Hazards From Adjacent Aircraft Operations
64
Operation of Radar
65
Bonding and Earthing
66
Precautions During Fuelling Operations
67
Wide Bodied Aircraft and Aircraft Equipped With Automatic Inflatable
68
Chutes
69
Aircraft Not Equipped With Automatic Inflatable Chutes
70
Cabin Attendants

Ice and Rain Protection

1
Introduction
2
Effects of Rain in Flight
3
Windscreen Rain Removal Systems
4
Windshield Wipers
5
Rain Repellent
6
Bleed Air Rain Removal
7
Effects of Ice Accretion on an Aircraft
8
Ice Formations
9
Frost / Hoarfrost
10
Rime Ice
11
Glaze Ice
12
Mixed Icing
13
Run Back Icing
14
Icing Conditions
15
Freezing Conditions
16
Freezing Drizzle
17
Freezing Fog
18
Freezing Precipitation
19
Light Freezing Rain
20
Sleet
21
Slush
22
Snow
23
Cold Soaked Wing
24
Clean Aircraft Policy
25
Pre Take-Off Check
26
Ground De-icing and Anti Icing
27
Removing Very Dry Snow from a Cold Soaked Aircraft
28
Removal of Snow, Sleet, Slush and Ice
29
One step De-Icing / Anti Icing
30
Two Step De-icing / Anti-Icing
31
Holdover Time
32
Type I Fluid
33
ISO Type I Fluid Holdover Times
34
Type II / IV Fluid
35
ISO Type II Fluid Holdover Times
36
ISO Type IV Fluid Holdover Times
37
Type III Fluid
38
Application of De-icing and Anti-icing Fluids
39
Hot Water De-icing
40
Fluid De-icing
41
Fluid Anti-icing
42
Cold Fuel Tanks
43
Undercarriage Bays
44
Fixed Undercarriages
45
Taxying
46
Icing Conditions in Flight – Intensity
47
De-Icing Paste
48
Ice Detection in Flight
49
Introduction
50
Temperature / Moisture Probes
51
Ice Detection Light
52
Hot Rod Ice Detector
53
Smiths Ice Detector
54
Serrated Rotor Ice Detector
55
Vibrating Rod Ice Detector
56
Ice Protection
57
Introduction
58
Leading Edge Protection
59
Pneumatic De-icing Boots
60
Light Aircraft De-icer Boot
61
Twin Engine Turbo Props
62
Airframe De-icing Fluid System
63
Thermal Anti-Icing System
64
Jet Engine Air intakes
65
Engine Nacelle Bleed Air Anti-icing
66
Electrical De-Icing and Anti-Icing
67
Windshields Fluid De – Icing
68
Windshields Electrical Anti – Icing
69
Pitot Probes
70
Propellers De-Icing
71
Propeller Fluid De-Icing System
72
Propeller Electrical De-Icing System
73
Turbo-Prop Electrical Anti-icing and De-icing Operation and Indications

Environmental Control Systems Air Conditioning

1
Introduction
2
Light Aircraft Ram Air Heating Systems
3
Ram Air Muffler Type Heat Exchanger
4
Combustion Heater
5
Ram Air Heating from a Turbo Charger System
6
Cooling Unpressurised Aircraft
7
Pressurised Aircraft
8
Basic Principles of Aircraft Air Conditioning
9
Air Cycle Machines
10
Bootstrap in conjunction with a Mechanical Blower
11
Blower
12
Duct Relief Valve
13
Choke Valve and Dual Pressure Switch
14
Bypass Valves
15
Primary Heat Exchanger
16
Bootstrap
17
Water Extractor
18
Bleed Air Bootstrap
19
Brake Turbine
20
Turbo Fan
21
Inducers
22
Vapour Cycle
23
Humidity and Humidifiers
24
Conditioned Air
25
Ducting
26
Air Distribution
27
Recycled Cabin Air
28
Minimum Ventilation Rate
29
Temperature Control
30
Smoke Contamination

Pressurisation and Oxygen

1
Introduction
2
Maximum Cabin Altitude for Pressurised Aircraft
3
Cabin Ambient Pressure
4
Cabin Differential Pressure – ∆P
5
Maximum Differential
6
Negative Differential
7
Safety
8
Safety Valves
9
Inward Relief Valves
10
Cabin Pressure
11
Outflow
12
Rate of Change
13
Maximum Rates of Change
14
Eustachian Tube
15
Cabin Pressure Control Systems
16
Variable Isobaric Controls
17
Pneumatic Pressure Control System
18
Discharge Valve
19
Cabin Pressure Controller
20
Initial Inflation Pressure
21
The Climb
22
Unanticipated Stepped Climb
23
Cruise – Isobaric Control
24
Partially Open
25
Maximum Differential Capsule
26
Max Diff Profiles – Off Schedule Descent
27
Max Diff Profiles – Aircraft Climb
28
Pressure Bumping
29
Descent
30
Go Around
31
Dump Valve
32
Ditching
33
Pneumatic Controller and Indications
34
Electro-Pneumatic Pressure Control System
35
Electronic Pressure Control System
36
Electronic Controller Operation
37
Automatic Operation
38
Standby
39
Off Schedule Descent
40
Manual Mode
41
Cabin Pressure Indicator
42
Leakage and Sealing
43
Decompression
44
Explosive Decompression
45
Rapid Decompression
46
Cabin Altitude in the Event of a Pressure Failure
47
Graphical Representation of Cabin Differential
48
Oxygen
49
Introduction
50
Hypoxia
51
Oxygen Saturation
52
Number of Passenger Masks and Distribution
53
Oxygen
54
Gaseous Aviation Breathing Oxygen
55
Gaseous Oxygen Systems
56
Continuous Flow System
57
Continuous Flow Passenger Supplementary Oxygen System
58
High Altitude Airports
59
Flight Crew’s Diluter Demand System
60
Passenger Chemical Oxygen Generators
61
Pax Masks and Smoke
62
Cabin Crew
63
Protective Breathing Equipment
64
Flight Crew Masks
65
Un-pressurised Aircraf
66
First-Aid Oxygen
67
Gaseous Oxygen System Components
68
Replenishing Aircraft Oxygen Systems
69
Thermal Compensator
70
Oxygen Bacterial Contamination
71
Fire and Explosion
72
Lubrication of Oxygen Components

Fire Detection and Protection

1
Introduction
2
Basic Chemistry
3
The Fire Triangle
4
Fuels
5
Heat
6
Fire Point
7
Flash Point
8
Auto Ignition Temperature
9
Oxygen
10
Combustion Products
11
Heat
12
Smoke
13
Classification of fires
14
Fires Involving Electricity
15
Domestic Situations
16
Fire Prevention by Design
17
JAR Definitions
18
Fireproof
19
Fire Resistant
20
Flame Resistant
21
Flash Resistant
22
Flammable
23
Fuselage Cargo Compartment Classification
24
Toilet Compartments
25
Fire Zones
26
Reciprocating Engines
27
Gas Turbine Engines
28
Auxiliary Power Units -APUs
29
Combustion Heaters
30
Air Intakes
31
Drainage and Ventilation of Fire Zones
32
Firewalls
33
Flammable Fluid Fire Protection
34
Engine and Combustion Heater Fire Shut-Off Valves
35
Flammable Fluid –Reservoirs and Pipes in a Fire Zone
36
Flight Controls and Engine Mounts within a Fire Zone
37
Dry Bays
38
Fire Detection
39
Introduction
40
Engine Fire Detection Warning Time
41
Cargo Compartment Fire Warning Times
42
Smoke Detectors
43
Radioactive Ionisation Detectors
44
Photoelectric Light Scatter Detectors
45
Photoelectric Light Attenuation Detectors
46
Location and Redundancy of Smoke Detectors
47
Ceiling Mounted
48
Remotely Mounted
49
Overheat Detectors – Fenwal Thermoswitch®
50
Fire Detectors
51
Firewire TM Kidde Graviner
52
Note
53
Firewire as a Generic Term
54
Resistive Firewire
55
Capacitive Firewire
56
Systron Donner Pressure Operated Fire / Overheat Detector
57
Thermocouple Fire Detector
58
Flame Detectors – Ultra Violet Type
59
Flame Detectors – Infra-red Type
60
JAA Requirements For Fire Warning
61
Dual Loops
62
Built In Test – BIT
63
Pre-Flight Test
64
Aural and Visual Alerting
65
Fire Warning – Indicating the Source
66
Overheat Warning
67
Fire Warnings for Toilet Compartments
68
Fire Suppression
69
Introduction
70
Fire Extinguishing Agents
71
Carbon Dioxide- CO2
72
Bromochlorodifluoromethane – CBrCIF3
73
Bromotrifluoromethane – CF3Br
74
Water – H2O
75
Methyl Bromide – MB
76
Protective Breathing Equipment for Flight Crew
77
Built in Fire Extinguishers Systems
78
Fixed Fire Extinguishers – Spherical
79
Squibs and Squib Test
80
Fixed Fire Extinguishers – Cylindrical
81
Thermal Over Pressure Vent Valve and Thermal Discharge Indicator
82
Discharge Indicators
83
Cross Feed System
84
Electrical Actuation of a Single Shot System
85
Electrical Actuation of a Cross Feed System
86
Engine Fire Indications
87
Fire Handles
88
Auxiliary Power Units Fire Protection
89
Wheel Bays
90
Hand Held Fire Extinguishers
91
Flight Deck
92
Cargo Compartments A, B and E
93
Galleys
94
Hand Held Fire Extinguisher for Passenger Compartments
95
Lavatory Fire Protection
96
Wheel Brake Fires

General Emergency Equipment

1
Introduction
2
Emergency Lighting
3
Emergency Lighting Switches
4
Areas of Emergency Lighting
5
Internal Emergency Lighting
6
External Emergency Lighting
7
Emergency Torches
8
Normal / Emergency Internal Communications
9
Megaphones
10
Emergency Location
11
Emergency Locator Transmitter – ELT
12
ELT (AF) – Automatic Fixed ELT
13
ELT (AD) – Automatic Deployable ELT
14
ELT(AP) –Automatic Portable ELT
15
ELT(S) – Survival ELT
16
ELT Frequencies and Minimum Levels
17
Flares
18
Sonar Locating Beacons
19
Survival Equipment
20
Emergency Exits
21
Sizes
22
Types and Numbers of Passenger Exits
23
Distance Between Passenger Exits
24
Ditching Emergency Exits
25
Door Opening
26
Flight Crew Emergency Exits
27
Aircraft Evacuation Time
28
Escape Slides
29
Arming –Disarming Slides
30
Flights Over Water
31
Requirement for Life Jackets
32
Requirement for Life Rafts
33
Life Jackets
34
Life Rafts
35
Equipment That A Life Raft Must Carry
36
Slide Rafts
37
Manual Deployment
38
Inoperative Exit Door – Slide or Slide Raft
39
Rescue
40
External Markings of Doors and Hatches
41
Break In Markings
42
General Emergency Equipment
43
First Aid Kits
44
Emergency Medical Kit
45
Crash Axes and Crowbars
46
Fire-Resistant Gloves
47
Smoke Hoods

Piston Engines

1
Operation And Construction
2
Carburation
3
Carburettors
4
Lubrication And Cooling
5
Engine Operation
6
Engine Performance

Fuel Injection And Power Augementation

1
Fual Injection
2
Power Augmentation

Propellers

1
Introducion
2
Propeller Effiency
3
Fixed Pitch Propellers
4
Fixed Pitch Propeller Disadvantages
5
Blade Twist
6
The Variable and Constant Speed Propeller
7
Constant Speed Propeller Blade Positions
8
Single Acting Propeller
9
Low Pitch Stop or Centrifugal Latch
10
Constant Speed Unit (CSU)
11
Single Acting Propeller Feathering
12
Single Acting Propeller Unfeathering
13
Pitch Stops
14
Beta Range
15
Reverse Pitch.
16
Pitch Locks.
17
Automatic Feathering
18
Synchronisation System
19
Synchrophasing System
20
Synchrophasing System Operation
21
Propeller Checks
22
Reduction Gearing
23
TorqueMeters

Gas Turbines

1
Gas Turbine Principles Of Operation
2
Types of Construction
3
Air Inlet
4
Compressors
5
Combustion Systems
6
Turbines
7
Jet Pipe
8
Reverse Thrust
9
Lubrication Systems
10
Fuel Systems
11
Starting and Ignition Systems
12
Engine Performance
13
Powerplant Operation and Monitoring
14
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) And Ram Air Turbine (RAT)

Laws and Definitions

1
Introduction
2
S I Unit
3
Derived Unit
4
Airspeeds
5
Newton’s Laws of Motion

The Flight Environment

1
Introduction
2
The Atmosphere
3
The Universal Gas Law
4
The Effect of Pressure on Density
5
The Effect of Temperature on Density
6
The Effect of Altitude on Density
7
The Effect of Humidity on Density
8
The International Standard Atmosphere

Aircraft Components and Terminology

1
Wing Position Terminology
2
Wing Planform Terminology
3
Wing Section Terminology
4
Aerofoil Cross-sectional Shapes

Lift

1
Introduction
2
Airflow
3
Equation of Continuity
4
Bernoulli’s Theorem
5
Angle of Attack
6
Two – Dimensional Airflow About an Aerofoil
7
Effect of Angle of Attack on the airflow About an Aerofoil Section
8
Chordwise Pressure Distribution About an Aerofoil Section
9
The Centre of Pressure
10
Pitching Moments
11
Aerodynamic Centre
12
Lift Formula
13
Variation of Coefficient of Lift with Angle of Attack
14
Three – Dimensional Airflow about an Aerofoil
15
Wing Shape and it’s Effect on lift

Drag

1
Introduction
2
Form Drag
3
Boundary Layer
4
Skin Friction Drag
5
Factors Affecting Skin Friction Drag
6
Interference Drag
7
Induced Drag
8
Factors Affecting Induced Drag
9
Methods to Reduce Induced Drag
10
Drag Formula
11
Drag Curves
12
Lift/Drag Ratio

Flying Controls

1
Introduction
2
Elevators
3
The Stabilator
4
The Rudder
5
Ailerons
6
Adverse Aileron Yaw
7
Combined Primary Controls Surfaces
8
Aerodynamic Balance
9
Tabs
10
Mass Balance
11
Powered Flying Controls
12
Powered Flying Controls
13
Powered Flying Control System Layout and Requirements
14
Control Input Systems
15
PCU
16
Artificial Feel Systems
17
Trimming Control Systems
18
Principle of a Trim Tab
19
Trimming of Powered Flying Control Systems
20
Spoilers

Lift Augmentation

1
Basic Lift Augmentation System
2
Trailing Edge Flaps
3
Types of Trailing Edge Flaps
4
Comparison of Different Types of Trailing Edge Flaps
5
Effect of Trailing Edge Flaps on the Stalling Angle
6
Effect of Trailing Edge Flaps on Stall Speed
7
Operation of Trailing Edge Flaps
8
Use of Trailing Edge Flaps for Take-Off
9
The Effects of Raising Trailing Edge Flaps in Flight
10
The Use of Trailing Edge Flaps During the Approach and Landing
11
High Lift Devices
12
The Leading Edge High Lift Device
13
The Effect of Leading Edge Flaps on the Stalling Angle
14
The Operation of High Lift Devices on Transport Category Aircraft
15
Protection of High Lift Devices on Transport Category Aircraft

Stalling

1
Introduction
2
Separated Airflow
3
The Stalling Angle of Attack
4
Definition of the JAR/FAR Stalling Speed
5
Relationship Between Stalling Speed and Lift
6
Recognition of the Stall at Low Speeds
7
Stall Warning in Light Aircraft
8
Recovery From a Normal Stall
9
The Effect of Wing Section on the Stall
10
The Effect of Wing Planform on the Stall
11
The Cause of Pitch-Up on Sweptback Wings at the Stall
12
Devices to Alleviate Wing Tip Stalling
13
The Stall Sensing in Transport Category Aircraft
14
The Stall Warning System in Transport Category Aircraft
15
The Stall Prevention System in Transport Category Aircraft
16
Super Stall (Deep Stall)
17
Accelerated or G-Stall
18
Spinning
19
The Fully Developed Spin
20
The Recovery from a Spin

Forces Acting on an Aeroplane

1
Forces in Steady Level Flight
2
Lift/Weight and Thrust/Drag Couples
3
The Contribution of the Tailplane
4
Straight Steady Climb
5
Forces in a Straight Steady Climb
6
Straight Steady Descent (Dive)
7
Straight Steady Glide
8
Forces in a Straight Steady Glide
9
The Effect of the Lift/Drag Ratio on Glide Performance
10
The Effect of a Steady Wind on Glide Performance
11
The Effect of Weight on Glide Performance
12
Steady Co-ordinated Turn
13
Forces Acting on an Aircraft During a Steady Co-ordinated Turn
14
Calculation of the Centripetal Force
15
Turning an Aircraft
16
Factors Affecting and Aircraft’s Radius of Turn
17
Balancing the Turn
18
Rate of Turn
19
Load Factor
20
The Effect of Turning on Stalling Speed
21
Aircraft Response During a Level Banked Turn
22
Aircraft Response During Climbing and Descending turns

Stability

1
Introduction
2
Static Stability
3
The Degree of Stability
4
Dynamic Stability
5
Static Longitudinal Stability
6
Mathematical Representation of Static Longitudinal Stability
7
Factors Affecting Longitudinal Static Stability
8
Graphical Representation of Static Longitudinal Stability
9
The Effect of Elevator Deflection on Pitching Moments
10
Control Force Stability
11
Manoeuvring Stability
12
Tailoring the Control Forces
13
Dynamic Longitudinal Stability
14
Pilot Induced Oscillations
15
Static Directional Stability
16
Graphical Representation of Static Directional Stability
17
The Factors Affecting Static Directional Stability
18
Static Lateral Stability
19
Graphical Representation of Static Lateral Stability
20
Interaction Between Lateral and Directional Stability
21
Dutch Roll
22
Yaw Damper Systems
23
Speed Stability

Ground Effect

1
Introduction
2
The Characteristics of Ground Effect
3
The Influence of Ground Effect on Landing
4
The Influence of Ground Effect on Trailing Edge Flaps

Propellers

1
Introduction
2
Propeller Terminology
3
Factors Affecting the Blade Angle of Attack
4
Factors Affecting the Blade Thrust Distribution
5
Propeller Efficiency
6
Forces Acting on a Windmilling Blade Section
7
Disadvantages of Fixed Pitch Propellers
8
Power Absorption
9
Propeller Effects on Take-off

Asymmetric Flight

1
Introduction
2
Single Engine Performance
3
Yawing Moments
4
Asymmetric Blade Effect
5
The Effect of Bank
6
The Effect of Weight
7
Rolling Moments
8
Minimum Airspeeds During Asymmetric Flight
9
Turning Flight
10
Recognition of a Failed Engine

High Speed Flight

1
Introduction
2
The Speed of Sound
3
Pressure Waves From a Moving Source
4
Nature of Compressibility
5
Mach Number
6
Flight Speed Classifications
7
Comparison of Subsonic and Supersonic Flow Patterns
8
The Development of Shock Waves
9
Shock Stall
10
The Effect of Altitude on the Shock Stall
11
Buffet Boundary Chart
12
Methods of Reducing or Delaying the Transonic Drag Rise
13
Transonic Area Rule
14
Supercritical Wings
15
Control Problems in Transonic Flight
16
Vortex Generators
17
The Effect of Transonic Flight on Aircraft Trim and Stability
18
Mach Trim
19
Supersonic Flight

Flight in Adverse Weather Conditions

1
Introduction
2
The Effect of Ice – Frost and Snow on the Aircraft’s Performance
3
The Effects of Contamination on Maximum Wing Lift Capability
4
The Effects of Contamination on Flaps and Slats
5
The Effect of Contamination on Take-off Performance
6
The Effect of Contamination on Aircraft Landing Performance
7
Tail Icing
8
Windshear
9
Vertical Gusts
10
Horizontal Gusts
11
Downdraughts and Updraughts
12
Downdraughts and Updraughts
13
General Recovery from a Windshear Encounter
14
Landing
15
Microbursts
16
The Effect of a Microburst Encounter During the Approach
17
The Effect of a Microburst on Take-off
18
Airborne Windshear Detection Systems
19
The Effect of Heavy Rain on Aircraft Performance

Operating Limitations

1
Introduction
2
The Flight Operating Envelope
3
Manoeuvre and Gust Loads
4
Aeroelastic Distortion (Aileron Reversal)
5
Emergency Descents

Basic AC Theory

1
Introduction
2
Advantages Of AC Over DC
3
Generating AC
4
Simple AC Generator
5
AC Terminology
6
Relationship Between Radiants And Degrees
7
Phase And Phase Angle
8
Phase Representation

Single Phase AC Circuits

1
Introduction
2
The Effect Of AC On A Purely Resistive Circuit
3
Power In An AC Resistive Circuit
4
The Effect Of AC On A Purely Inductive Circuit
5
Power In An AC Inductive Circuit
6
Inductive Reactance (Xl)
7
The Effect Of An A Purely Capacitive Circuit
8
Power In An AC Capacitive Circuit
9
Capacitive Reactance (Capacitors AC Resistance)
10
Relationship Between Voltage And Current In Capacitive And Inductive AC Circuits
11
Resistive And Inductive (RL) Series AC circuit
12
Resistive And Capacitive (RC) Series AC Circuit
13
Phase shift
14
Resistive – Inductive and Capacitive (RLC) Series AC Circuits
15
Impedance (Z) In A Resistive, Inductive And Capacitive (RLC) Series AC Circuit
16
Resistive, Inductive And Capacitive (RLC) Parallel AC Circuit
17
Impedance (Z) In A Resistive, Inductive And Capacitive (RLC) Paraller AC Circuit
18
Power In A Resistive, Inductive And Capacitive (RLC) AC Circuit
19
Power Factor
20
AC Series Circuit Example
21
AC Parallel Circuit Example

Resonant AC Circuits

1
Introduction
2
Series Resonant Circuit
3
Q Factor In A Series Resonant Circuit
4
Parallel Resonant Circuit (Tank Circuit)
5
Q Factor In A Parallel Resonant Circuit
6
Self Resonance Of Coils
7
Use Of Resonant circuits
8
Low-pass Filter
9
high-pass Filter
10
Band-pas Filter
11
Band-reject Filter
12
Turning Circuits

Transformers

1
Introduction
2
Construction And Operation
3
Types Of Transformers
4
Three-Phase Transformer (Isolation Transformer)
5
Auto Transformer
6
Current Transformer

AC Power Generation

1
Introduction
2
Simple Three Phase Generator
3
Star Connection
4
Voltage And Frequency Of AC Generators
5
Phase Rotation
6
Faults Of Three-Phase AC Generators
7
Generator Real And Reactive Load Sharing
8
Type Of AC Generator
9
Salient Pole Three-Phase AC Generators
10
Brushless Three Phase AC Generator
11
Constant Speed Drive Unit
12
Operaation Of The Hydro-Mechinical CSDU
13
Protection Of The Hydro-Mechanical CSDU
14
Integrated Drive Generator
15
Variable Speed Constant Frequency Power Systems
16
Auciliary Power Unit
17
Emergency Ram Air Turbine

AC Power Generation Systems

1
Introduction
2
Piston-Engined Frequency Wild AC System Architecture
3
Operation Of A Piston-Engined Frequency Wild AC System
4
Fault Protection In A Piston-Engined Frequency Wild AC System
5
Twin-Engined Turbo-Propeller Frequency Wild AC System Architecture
6
Operation Of A Twin-Engined Turbo-Propeller Frequency Wild AC system
7
Fault Protection In A Twin-Engined Turbo-Proopeller Frequency Wild AC System
8
The Constant Frequency Aplit Busbar AC System
9
Operation Of a Constant Frequency Split Busbar AC System
10
Regulation And Protection Of Constant Frequency Unit
11
Fault On A Constant Frequency Split Busbar AC Generator system
12
emergency Supplies
13
Battery Charger
14
Battery Power
15
Ground Handling Bus
16
Constant Frequency Parallel AC System
17
Operation Of A Constant Frequency Parallel AC system
18
Reactive Load sharing
19
Real Load Sharing
20
Paralleing
21
Fault Protections In A Constant Frequency AC Paraller system
22
DC Power Supplies

AC Motors

1
Introduction
2
Stator-Producted Rotating Magnetic Field
3
Induction (Squirrel Cage) Motor
4
Two-Phase Induction Motor
5
Split-Phase Motor
6
The Synchronous Motor

Basic DC Terminology

1
Introduction
2
Current (I)
3
Electromotive Force (EMF)
4
Potential Difference (PD)
5
Voltage (V)
6
Resistance (R)
7
Ohms Law
8
Loads
9
Kirchhoff’s Laws
10
Electrical Power (P)
11
Electrical Work
12
Electrical Unit Prefixes
13
Typlical Circuit Symbols

Electrical Components

1
Introduction
2
Electrical Systems
3
Single Pole Or Earth Return System
4
Dipole Or Two-Wire System
5
Ground (Earth)
6
Electrical Circuit Faults
7
Short Circuit
8
Open Circuit
9
Busbars
10
Protection Devices
11
Electrical Fuse
12
Current Limiters
13
Circuit Breaker
14
Circuit Breakers Have The Following Advantages Over Fuses
15
Reverse Curreny Circuit Breaker (RCCB)
16
Switches
17
Toggle Switches (tumbler swithces)
18
Push Switches
19
Rocker Button Switches
20
Rotary Switches
21
Micro-switches
22
Rheostats
23
Time Switches
24
Mercury Switches
25
Pressure Switches
26
Thermal Switches
27
Proximity Switches
28
Bi-metallic Switches
29
Eletrical Generator
30
Electrical Alternator
31
Electrical Motor

Aeroplane Batteries

1
Introduction
2
Lead Acid Battery
3
Alkaline Batter (Nickl-Cadmium)
4
Battery Venting
5
Electrolyte Spillage
6
Battery Capacity
7
Battery Charging
8
Thermal Runway
9
Battery State Of Charge
10
Battery Condition Check
11
Emergency USe
12
Connection Of Batteries
13
Spare Batteries
14
Battery Compartment Inspection

Magnetism

1
Introduction
2
Fundamental Laws Of Magnetism
3
Classification Of Magnetic Materials
4
Magnetic Flux
5
Flux Density
6
Reluctanse
7
Permeability
8
Hysteresis
9
Saturation
10
Magnetism Produces By Current Flow
11
The Electromagnet
12
The Relay

DC Generator Systems

1
Introduction
2
Basic Generator Theory
3
Simple AC Generator
4
Conversion Of AC To DC
5
DC Generator System Architecture
6
Dc Generator Construction