Meteorology-Notes

METEOROLOGY

1
METEOROLOGY
2
CLIMATOLOGY
3
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY
4
Chemistry

ATMOSPHERE

1
ATMOSPHERE
2
PRODUCTION OF GASES
3
HOW THEY ARE HELD
4
COMPOSTION OF GASES IN OUR ATMOSPHERE
5
TRACE GASES
6
WATER VAPOUR
7
CAN WE SEE WATER VAPOUR:-
8
THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE VARIES VERTICALLLY& HORIZONTALLY IN
9
THE TROPOSPHERE
10
THE TROPOPAUSE
11
HEIGHT & TEMP. OF TROPOPAUSE IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW BECAUSE
12
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT THE HEIGHT OF THE TROPOPAUSE ?
13
PLACES WHERE THE TROPOPAUSE BREAKS OR FOLDS
14
HOW IS OZONE FORMED?
15
THE STRATOSPHERE
16
THE MESOSPHERE
17
THE THERMOSPHERE
18
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ATMOSPHERE (ISA)

PRESSURE

1
INTRODUCTION
2
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
3
HORIZONTAL PRESSURE DIFFERENCE
4
VARIATION OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE WITH ALTITUDE
5
UNITS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
6
INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
7
ADVANTAGES OF ANEROID BAROMETER OVER MERCURY BAROMETER
8
BAROGRAPH
9
PRESSURE VARIATIONS AT THE EARTH’S SURFACE
10
THE PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE
11
ISOBARIC TROUGHS
12
ISOBARIC RIDGES
13
COLS
14
VERTICAL PRESSURE VARIATION
15
ISALLOBARS
16
THE EFFECT ON TEMPERATURE ON VERTICAL PRESSURE VARIATION

DENSITY

1
INTRODUCTION
2
DENSITY ALTITUDE
3
EFFECT OF CHANGES OF PRESSURE ON DENSITY
4
EFFECT OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE ON DENSITY
5
EFFECT OF CHANGE OF HUMIDITY ON DENSITY
6
EFFECT OF CHANGE OF ALTITUDE ON DENSITY
7
EFFECT OF CHANGE OF LATITUDE ON DENSITY
8
EFFECT OF CHANGES IN DENSITY ON A/C OPERATIONS

PRESSURE SYSTEMS

1
INTRODUCTION
2
Pressure systems are defined by the relative pressure
3
SMALL SCALE LOWS
4
HAZARDS TO AVIATION FROM SMALL SCALE LOWS
5
VISIBILITY IN SMALL SCALE LOWS
6
THE EQUATORIAL LOW PRESSURE BELT
7
TROPICAL REVOLVING STORMS
8
LARGE SCALE LOW PRESSURE AREAS (DEPRESSIONS)
9
FORMATION OF POLAR FRONT DEPRESSIONS
10
THE WARM FRONT
11
THE COLD FRONT
12
UNSTABLE REGION
13
THE OCCLUDED FRONT
14
ISOBARIC TROUGHS
15
NON-FRONTAL TROUGHS
16
TROUGH LINES
17
ANTICYCLONES
18
Adiabatic Warming
19
Subsidence Inversion
20
Movement Of Air
21
WARM ANTICLYCLONES
22
COLD ANTICYCLONES
23
TEMPORARY OR TRAVELLING COLD ANTICYCLONES
24
BLOCKING ANTICYCLONES
25
RIGDES
26
COLS

ALTIMETER

1
INTRODUCTION
2
SUB-SCALE SETTINGS
3
HORIZONTAL PRESSURE VARIATION
4
REGIONAL PRESSURE SETTINGS
5
TEMPERATURE ERROR
6
TRUE ALTITUDE
7
ROUGH CALCULATIONS OF ALTIMETER CORRECTION

TEMPERATURE

1
Temperature
2
MEASUREMENT
3
INSTRUMENT
4
HEATING OF THE ATMOSPHERE
5
Solar Radiation
6
Terrestrial Radiation
7
Greenhouse Effect
8
Conduction
9
Covection
10
Advection
11
Condensation
12
SURFACE TEMPERATURE
13
ANGULAR ELEVATION OF SUN
14
Specific Heat

HUMIDITY

1
LATENT HEAT
2
CHANGE OF STATE
3
INSTRUMENTS TO MEASURE HUMIDITY
4
ABSOLUTE HUMDITY
5
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
6
Humidity Mixing Ratio
7
Humidity Mixing Ratio for Saturated Air
8
Vapour pressure
9
Important Points

ADIABATICS AND STABILITY

1
Adiabatic
2
ADIABATIC WARMING
3
ADIABATIC COOLING
4
DRY ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
5
SATURATED ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE (SALR)
6
THE REASON FOR THE DIFFERNCE BETWEEN DALR & SALR
7
ENVIRONMENT LAPSE RATE(ELR)
8
REASON FOR SALR VARIATION WITH TEMPERATURE
9
STABILTY
10
STABLE AIR/ ABSOLUTE STABILITY
11
ABSOLUTE INSTABILITY/UNSTABLE AIR
12
CONDITIONAL STABILITY/UNSTABILITY
13
NEUTRAL STABILITY

TURBULENCE

1
Turbulence
2
CAUSES
3
Turbulence Occurs
4
FRICTION LAYER
5
THERMAL TURBULENCE
6
MECHANICAL TURBULENCE
7
TURBULENCE WITHIN CLOUDS
8
TURBULENCE SURROUNDING CLOUDS
9
TURBULENCE BENEATH CLOUDS
10
LOW ALTITUDE WINDSHEAR
11
STANDING OR MOUNTAIN [LEE] WAVES [MTW]
12
Mountain Waves Understanding
13
Altimeter Error
14
CAT

WINDS

1
INTRODUCTION
2
MEASUREMENT OF WINDS
3
THE GEOSTROPHIC WINDS
4
PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE
5
CORIOLIS FORCE
6
BUYS BALLOT’S LAW
7
CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR THE WIND TO BE GEOSTROPHIC
8
WINDS BELOW 2000-3000FT(1KM)
9
SURFACE WIND OVER SEA AND LAND
10
DIURNAL VARIATION OF THE SURFACE WINDS
11
THE GRADIENT WIND
12
GRADIENT WIND IN A DEPRESSION
13
GRADIENT WIND IN A HIGH
14
THE ANTITRIPTIC WIND
15
Inertial Wind
16
LOCAL WINDS
17
PRACTICAL COASTAL EFFECTS
18
VALLEY OR RAVINE WINDS
19
Anabatic winds and Katabatic winds
20
Fohn Winds

UPPER WINDS

1
INTRODUCTION
2
THERMAL WIND
3
CONTOUR CHARTS
4
THE UPPER WIND PRINCIPLE
5
SIMPLE MODEL OF THE GENERAL UPPER WIND PATTERNS OF THE WORLD
6
JET STREAMS
7
SUB-TROPICAL JET STREAMS
8
POLAR FRONT JET STREAM
9
ARCTIC FRONT JETS
10
TROPICAL JET STREAM

CLOUD FORMATION AND PRECIPITATION

1
VERTICAL MOTION
2
WAYS OF LIFTING OF AIR
3
CONDENSATION LEVEL
4
OROGRAPHIC CLOUD
5
CONVECTION CLOUD
6
FRONTAL UPLIFT
7
COVERGENCE CLOUD
8
INVERSION

CLOUDS

1
INTRODUCTION
2
CLOUD AMOUNT
3
MEASUREMENT OF CLOUD BASE
4
MEASUREMENT OF CLOUD TOPS
5
CLASSIFICATION OF CLOUDS
6
Important points to remember

PRECIPITATION

1
INTRODUCTION
2
COALESCENCE THEORY (WARM AIR PROCESS)
3
THE BERGERON PROCESS
4
Giant Nucleus Theory
5
Cloud Burst
6
Flash Flood
7
Cloud Seeding

THUNDERSTORMS

1
INTRODUCTION
2
CONDITIONS FOR THUNDERSTORM
3
TRIGGERS
4
CLASSIFICATION OF THUNDERSTORMS
5
HEAT TYPE THUNDERSTORMS
6
FRONTAL TYPE THUNDERSTORMS
7
THUNDERSTORM DEVELOPMENT
8
FORECASTING
9
SUPERCELL THUNDERSTORMS

VISIBILITIY

1
INTRODUCTION
2
PREVAILING VISIBILITY
3
OBSCURITY
4
VARIOUS TYPE OF REDUCTION IN VISIBILTY
5
TYPE OF FOGS
6
RADIATION FOG
7
HILL/OROGRAPHIC FOG
8
ADVECTION FOG
9
STEAMING FOG(ARCTIC SMOKE)
10
FRONTAL FOG
11
SMOKE
12
DUST
13
SAND
14
PRECIPITATION
15
VISIBILTIY MEASUREMENT
16
RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE
17
TRANSMISSOMETER

AIRCRAFT ICING

1
FORMATION OF ICE ON AN AIRFRAME
2
SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS
3
THE EFFECT OF ICING
4
RIME ICE
5
CLEAR (OR GLAZE) ICE
6
RAIN ICE
7
HOAR FROST
8
CONCENTRATION OF SUPER COOLED WATER DROPLETS
9
CLOUD BASE TEMPERATURE
10
FREEZING LEVEL
11
Airframe Icing in relation to cloud Forms
12
Engine Icing

AIR MASSES

1
INTRODUCTION
2
AIR MASS IDENTIFICATION
3
FRONTS
4
MAIN GLOBAL FRONTS
5
Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
6
FRONTAL FACTORS
7
EQUILIBRIUM
8
CONVERGENCE
9
COLD FRONT
10
KATA TYPE COLD FRONT
11
ANA TYPE COLD FRONT
12
OCCLUDED FRONTS/OCCLUSIONS
13
WARM TYPE OCCLUSION
14
COLD TYPE OCCLUSION
15
OCCLUSION WEATHER

OPTICAL PHENOMENA

1
RAINBOW
2
Halo
3
Corona
4
Mirage
5
BISHOP’S RING
6
TWILIGHT COLOURS
7
GLORY
8
CREPUSCULAR RAYS
9
AURORA

CLIMATOLOGY OF INDIA

1
INTRODUCTION
2
IMPORTANT FACTORS ACTIVATE THE MONSOONS
3
SOUTH-WEST MONSOON ORIGIN
4
Pressure Pattern
5
Axis of Monsoon Trough
6
Surface Wind
7
Surface Temperature
8
Upper winds
9
Break Monsoon
10
NORTH-EASTERN MONSOON ORIGIN
11
NORTH-EASTERN MONSOON
12
Pressure Distribution NE Monsoon
13
Surface Temperature
14
Upper Winds
15
Weather
16
PRE-MONSOON

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