Navigation

The Form of the Earth

1
Shape of the Earth
2
The Poles
3
East and West
4
North Pole and South Pole
5
Cardinal Directions
6
Position on the Earth
7
Great Circle
8
Small Circle
9
Equator
10
Meridians
11
Parallels of Latitude
12
Rhumb Line

Position on the Earth

1
Angular Measurement
2
Degree
3
Position Reference System
4
Latitude and Longitude
5
Latitude
6
Parallels of Latitude
7
Longitude
8
Position Using Latitude and Longitude
9
Change of Latitude (Ch Lat)
10
Calculation of Change of Latitude
11
Mean Latitude Mean Lat (Mlat)
12
Change of Longitude (Ch Long)
13
Mean Longitude
14
Answers to Position Examples

Distance

1
Introduction
2
Metre
3
Kilometre
4
Foot
5
Statute Mile
6
Nautical Mile
7
Conversion Factors
8
Great Circle Distance
9
Distance Example Answers

Direction

1
Introduction
2
Definitions
3
True Direction
4
Magnetic Direction
5
Isogonal
6
Variation
7
Variation – West
8
Variation – East
9
Deviation
10
Deviation – West
11
Deviation – East
12
Relative Bearing
13
Grid and Grivation
14
Direction Example Answers

Speed

1
Introduction
2
Air Speed Indicator Reading (ASIR)
3
Instrument Error
4
Position Error
5
Indicated Air Speed (IAS)
6
Rectified Air Speed (RAS)
7
Equivalent Air Speed (EAS)
8
True Air Speed (TAS)
9
Groundspeed
10
Mach Number
11
Relative Speed

The Triangle of Velocities

1
Introduction
2
The Components of the Triangle of Velocities

Pooley’s – Circular Slide Rule

1
The Circular Slide Rule
2
Multiplication, Division and Ratios
3
Multiplication
4
Division
5
Ratios
6
Conversions
7
Feet – Metres – Yards
8
Conversion Between Weight And Volume
9
Fahrenheit To Centigrade
10
Speed, Distance and Time
11
Groundspeed
12
Time
13
Distance Travelled
14
Calculation of TAS up to 300 Knots
15
Calculation of TAS over 300 Knots
16
Calculation of TAS from Mach Number
17
Temperature Rise Scale
18
Calculation of True Altitude
19
Calculation of Density Altitude
20
Answers to CRP 5 Examples

Pooley’s – The Triangle of Velocities

1
Dalton Computer Terminology
2
Drift Scale
3
Obtaining Heading
4
To Calculate Track and Groundspeed
5
To Find the Wind Velocity
6
To Find Heading and Groundspeed
7
Take-Off and Landing Wind Component
8
Tailwind Component
9
Crosswind and Headwind Limits

Maps and Charts - Introduction

1
Introduction
2
Properties of the Ideal Chart
3
Shape of the Earth
4
Vertical Datum
5
Chart Construction
6
Orthomorphism
7
Conformality
8
Convergency
9
Calculation of Convergence
10
Departure (East – West Distance Calculation)
11
Map Classification
12
Scale
13
Distances
14
Geodetic (Geographic) Latitude
15
Geocentric Latitude
16
Maps and Charts Answers

Maps and Charts - Mercator

1
Introduction
2
Scale
3
Measurement of Distance
4
Properties of the Mercator Chart
5
Plotting on a Mercator Chart
6
Use of Chart
7
Answers to Mercator Examples

Maps and Charts – Lambert’s Conformal

1
Introduction
2
Conical Projection
3
Lambert’s Conformal
4
1 /6 Rule
5
Meridians and Parallels
6
Constant of the Cone
7
Properties of the Lambert’s Conformal
8
Plotting on a Lambert’s Conformal Chart
9
Answers to Lambert’s Examples

Maps and Charts – Polar Stereographic

1
Definitions
2
Shapes and Areas
3
Great Circle
4
Rhumb Line
5
Convergence
6
Scale
7
Uses of the Polar Stereographic Chart
8
Grid and Plotting on a Polar Chart
9
Aircraft Heading
10
Answers to Polar Stereographic Examples

Maps and Charts – Transverse and Oblique Mercator

1
Introduction
2
Transverse Mercator
3
Oblique Mercator

Maps and Charts – Summary

1
Mercator
2
Lambert’s Conformal
3
Polar Stereographic
4
Transverse Mercator
5
Oblique Mercator

Pilot Navigation Technique

1
Introduction
2
The Need for Accurate Flying
3
Pre-flight Planning
4
Flight Planning Sequence
5
Aircraft Performance
6
Mental Dead Reckoning
7
Estimation of Track Error
8
Correction for Track Error
9
The 1 in 60 Rule
10
Estimation of TAS
11
Chart Analysis and Map Reading
12
Chart Scale
13
Relief
14
Relative Values of Features
15
Principles of Map Reading
16
Direction
17
Distance
18
Anticipation of Landmarks
19
Identification of Features
20
Fixing by Map Reading
21
Man Reading in Continuous Conditions
22
Map Reading at Unpredictable Intervals
23
Use of Radio Aids
24
ICAO Chart Symbols

Relative Velocity

1
Introduction
2
Aircraft on the Same or Opposite Tracks
3
Calculations
4
Speed Adjustment
5
Distance Between Beacons
6
Graphical Solution for Calculating Relative Velocity

Principles of Plotting

1
Introduction
2
Plotting Instruments
3
Plotting Symbols
4
The Track Plot
5
Typical Trackplot
6
The Air Plot
7
Restarting the Air Plot
8
Establishment of Position
9
DR Position
10
Track Plot Method
11
Air Plot Method
12
Fixing
13
Position Lines
14
Sources of Position Lines
15
Plotting an NDB Position Line
16
VOR/VDF Position Lines
17
DME Position Lines
18
Uses of Position Lines
19
Checking Track
20
Checking Ground Speed/ETA
21
Fixing by Position Lines
22
Transferring Position Lines
23
Radar Fixing
24
Climb and Descent
25
Climb
26
Descent
27
Chart 1
28
Chart 2
29
Chart 3
30
Answers to Plotting Questions

Time

1
Introduction
2
Definition of Time
3
Perihelion
4
Aphelion
5
Seasons of the Year
6
The Day
7
The Apparent Solar Day
8
The Mean Sun
9
The Mean Solar Day
10
The Civil Day
11
The Year
12
Local Mean Time (LMT)
13
Universal Co-Ordinated Time (UTC)
14
Conversion of LMT to UTC
15
Standard Time
16
International Date Line
17
Risings, Settings and Twilight.
18
Times of Visible Sunrise and Sunset
19
Twilight
20
Duration of Civil Twilight
21
Air Almanac
22
Answers to Time Problems

Point of Equal Time and Point of Safe Return

1
Introduction
2
Point of Equal Time
3
PET Formula
4
Engine Failure PET
5
Multi-Leg PET
6
Two Leg PET
7
Three Leg PET
8
Point of Safe Return
9
Single Leg PSR
10
Multi-Leg PSR
11
Multi-Leg PSR with Variable Fuel Flow
12
Radius of Action
13
Answers to Self-Assessment Questions

Aircraft Magnetism

1
Principles of Magnetism
2
Introduction
3
Magnetic Properties
4
Magnetic Moment
5
Magnet in a Deflecting Field
6
Period of a Suspended Magnet
7
Hard Iron and Soft Iron
8
Terrestrial Magnetism
9
Magnetic Variation
10
Magnetic Storms
11
Magnetic Dip
12
Earth’s Total Magnetic Force
13
Aircraft Magnetism
14
Types of Aircraft Magnetism
15
Hard Iron Magnetism
16
Soft Iron Magnetism
17
Components of Hard Iron Magnetism
18
Components of Soft Iron Magnetism
19
Determination of Deviation Coefficients
20
Joint Airworthiness Requirements (JAR) Limits
21
Compass Swing
22
Compass Swing – Example
23
Deviation Compensation Devices
24
Mechanical Compensation
25
Electrical Compensation

Aircraft Magnetism – Compasses

1
Direct Reading Magnetic Compass
2
Introduction
3
Principle of Operation
4
“E” Type Compass Description
5
Serviceability Tests – Direct Reading Compass
6
Acceleration and Turning Errors
7
Acceleration Error
8
Turning Errors
9
Gyro Magnetic Compasses
10
Introduction
11
Basic Principle of Operation
12
Components
13
Components
14
Detector Unit
15
Components of the Flux Detector Element
16
Transmission System
17
Gyroscope and Indicator Monitoring
18
Gyroscope Element
19
Heading Indicator
20
Modes of Operation
21
Synchronising Indicators
22
Manual Synchronisation
23
Operation in a Turn
24
Advantages of the Remote Indicating Gyro Magnetic Compass
25
Disadvantages of the Remote Indicating Gyro Magnetic Compass

Inertial Navigation Systems

1
Accelerometers
2
Introduction
3
Principles and Construction
4
Performance
5
Gyro Stabilized Platform
6
Introduction
7
Rate Gyros/Platform Stabilisation
8
Setting-up Procedures
9
Levelling
10
Alignment
11
Inertial Navigation System (Conventional Gyro)
12
Introduction
13
Inertial Navigation System (Conventional Gyro)
14
Corrections
15
Gyro Corrections:
16
Acceleration Corrections
17
Coriolis
18
Centripetal Acceleration
19
Errors
20
The Schuler Period
21
Bounded Errors
22
Unbounded Errors
23
Cumulative Track Errors
24
Cumulative Distance Errors
25
Inherent Errors
26
Radial Error
27
Advantages/Disadvantages
28
Disadvantages
29
Operation of INS
30
CDU
31
Display Selection – TK/GS
32
Display Selection – HDG/GA
33
Display Selector – XTK/TKE
34
Display Selection – POS
35
Display Selection – WPT
36
Display Selection – DIS/TIME
37
Display Selection – WIND
38
Display Selection: DSR TK/STS
39
Display Function – TEST
40
Solid State Gyros
41
Introduction
42
Types of Solid State Gyros
43
Ring Laser Gyro
44
Fibre Optic Gyros
45
Advantages and Disadvantage of RLGs
46
“Strap-down” INS
47
Introduction
48
System Description
49
Alignment
50
Performance

Basic Radio Theory

1
Wave Motion
2
Introduction
3
Electro-Magnetuc Waves
4
Properties Of Radio Waves
5
Relationship Between Frequency – Wavelength And Velocity
6
Phase Difference
7
Radio Spectrum
8
Wave Propagation
9
Surface Wave
10
Type Of Surface
11
Sky Wave
12
Critical Angle
13
Dead Space
14
The Lonosphere
15
Frequency And Skip Distance
16
Lonization And Skip Distance
17
Space Wave
18
Duct Propagation
19
Aerials
20
Aerial Length
21
Polar Diagrams
22
Omni-Directional Aerials
23
Simple Half-Wave Aerial
24
Marconi Quarter Wave Aerial
25
Aerial Feeders
26
Modulation
27
Keying
28
Amplitude Modulation
29
Frequency Modulation
30
Pulse Modulation
31
Classification Of Emissions
32
Basic Radar Theory
33
Introduction
34
Radar Frequencies
35
Principles
36
Pulse Radars
37
Radar Direction Finding
38
Lobe Comparison
39
Beam Direction Finding
40
Radar Terminology
41
Choice Of Frequency

VHF Direction Finding

1
Introduction
2
Principles Of Operation
3
Frequency
4
Emission Characteristics
5
Operation
6
Services
7
Siting
8
Receiving A Bearing
9
Asking For A Bearing
10
VDF Approach
11
Decoding The Chart
12
Part 1 – Administration
13
Part 2 – The Plan View
14
Part 3 – the Elevation View
15
Refusal Of Service
16
Automatic VDF
17
Range And Errors

Non Directional Beacons And Automatic Direction Finding

1
Introduction
2
Principle Of Operation
3
Frequency
4
Emission Characteristics
5
Loop Theory
6
Sensing
7
NDB Operation
8
ADF Operation
9
Bearing Determination
10
Types – Typical Accociated Power Outputs And Users
11
Control Panel And Indicators
12
Control Panel
13
TEST Switch
14
Bearing Indicators
15
Relative Bearing Indicator (RBI)
16
Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)
17
Direct Wave Limitations
18
Sky Wave Limitations
19
Night Effect
20
Errors Of The ADF
21
Quadrantal Error
22
Dip (Bank) Error
23
Coastal Refraction
24
Muktipath Signals
25
Noise
26
Synchronous Transmission
27
Promulgated Range
28
Absence Of Failure Warning
29
Accuracy

NDB Navigation

1
Introduction
2
ADF Bearing
3
Line Of Position (LOP) Using The RBI
4
Line Of Position (LOP) Using The RMI
5
Homing
6
Intercepting A Course
7
Inbound To The Beacon
8
Example 1
9
Example 2
10
Tracking
11
NDB Approach
12
Part 1 – Administration
13
Part 2 – The Plan View
14
Part 3 – The Elevation View
15
Part 4 – Limits And Other Information

VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range (VOR)

1
Introduction
2
Principle Of Operation
3
Frequency
4
Polarisation
5
Emission Characteristics
6
Conventional VOR
7
Reference Signal
8
Variable Signal
9
Aircraft Receiver
10
Bearing Measurement
11
Aircraft Equipment
12
Aerial
13
Receiver
14
Frequency Selector
15
Indicators
16
Monitoring
17
Terrain
18
Designated Operational Coverage (DOC)
19
Cone Of Confusion
20
Accuracy
21
Airway Navigation
22
Test VOR
23
Doppler VOR

VOR Navigation

1
VOR Approaches
2
Part 1 – Administration
3
Part 2 – Plan View
4
Part 3 – Elevation View
5
Part 4 – Notes

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

1
Introduction
2
Principle Of Operation
3
Frequency
4
Emission Characteristics
5
Aircraft Equipment
6
Transponder
7
Frequency Allocation
8
Jittered PRF
9
Reflected Transmissions
10
Memory
11
Beacon Saturation
12
Co-Location Of Beacons
13
Slant Range
14
DME Navigation
15
DME Procedures
16
Slant Range
17
FLight Overhead The DME
18
Failure Indications
19
Accuracy

Instrument Landing System (ILS)

1
Introduction
2
Principle Of Operation
3
Frequency
4
Emission Characteristics
5
Localiser
6
Localiser Coverage
7
Glidepath
8
Glidepath coverage
9
Airborne equipment
10
Frequency pairing
11
Localiser And GLide Path Receivers
12
ILS Indicator
13
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
14
ILS Accuracy
15
False Beams
16
Localiser Back Beam
17
ILS PErformance Categories Categories
18
ILS Operation Performance Categories
19
Protection Range And Monitoring
20
Use OF ILS
21
ILS Identification
22
Flying The Localiser
23
Flying The Glide Path
24
ILS Without Glide Path
25
Diatance Measuring Equipment
26
Rate Of Descent (ROD)
27
Height Passing On The Approach

Marker Beacons

1
Introduction
2
Principle Of Operation
3
Frequency
4
Emission Characteristics
5
Airborne Equipment
6
Airway Marker
7
Ground Installation

Microwave Landing System (MLS)

1
Introduction
2
Principle Of Operation
3
Frequency
4
Polarisation
5
Ground Installation
6
Azimuth Coverage
7
ElevationCoverage
8
Back Azimuth
9
Signal Transmission Format
10
Time Reference Scanning Beam
11
Angular Measurement In Azimuth And ELevation
12
Airborne Equipment
13
Accuracy

Radar Principles And The Cathode Ray Tube

1
Pulse Techniques And Associated Terms
2
The Components Of A Radar Unit
3
The Timebase
4
The Display
5
The Transmitter
6
The Aerial
7
Beamwidth
8
The Receiver
9
Timer – Cathode Ray Tube
10
Cathode
11
Grid
12
Focussing Assembly
13
Electron Beam Deflection
14
Screen
15
Do Not Fly
16
Radar Performance
17
Secondary Radar

Hyperbolic Navigation

1
Intriduction
2
Hyperbolic Family
3
Lines Of Position (LOP)
4
Errors OF Hyperbolic Navigation
5
Propagation Errors
6
Height Error
7
Simple Hyperbolic Calculation

LORAN C

1
Introduction
2
Principle Od Operation
3
Frequency
4
Typical LORAN C Chain
5
LORAN C Transmission
6
Operation
7
Coverage – Limitation and accuracy
8
LORAN C Coverage
9
Sky waves
10
Static disturbances
11
Radio propagation speed
12
Geometry of crossing angles
13
Use of LORAN C
14
LORAN C navigation
15
Transmitter fault indication
16
Range and accuracy
17
Accuracy limits

Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)

1
Introduction
2
System capability
3
Basic principle of operation
4
The GPS system
5
The Space segment
6
Frequency and coding
7
Navigation message
8
The control segment
9
The user segment
10
GPS operating principles
11
Pseudo range
12
The GPS receivers
13
Hand-held aviation portable
14
GPS receiver
15
System limitations
16
Number of users
17
Coverage
18
Reliability / Integrity
19
Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)
20
GPS integrity broadcast
21
Coverage problems
22
Accuracy and error sources
23
User equivalent range errors
24
Dilution of precision
25
Error presictions
26
Differential GPS (DGPS)
27
DGPA principle of operation
28
Summary of GPS error sources
29
Typical position accuracy
30
Pseudolite/DGPS
31
Satelite based augmentation systems (SBAS)
32
RAIM i n the wide area augmentation system
33
GLONASS
34
Basic concepts of the GLONASS system
35
Integrated navigation systems
36
GNSS Applications

Area Navigation Systems

1
Introoduction
2
Area navigation concepts
3
Basic RNAV
4
Use of basic RNAV
5
RNAV limitations
6
Directing and co-ordinating crew activities

Introduction to the flight management system (FMS)

1
Introduction
2
The role of FMS
3
Use of FMS
4
Output information

An overview of CNS/ATM

1
Communications
2
Air traffic management and FANS 1
3
Controller/Pilot data link communication (CPDLS)
4
Aeronautical telecommunications network (ATN)
5
Navigation
6
Eurocontrol BRNAV and PRNAV
7
Required navigation performance (RNP)
8
Terminal area initiatives
9
Surveillance
10
Automatic dependent surceillance (ADS)
11
Automatic dependent surveillance – Croadcast (ADS – B)
12
Mode S data link

Electronic Display Systems

1
Glossary of terms
2
Introductions
3
General
4
General certification considerations
5
Display function criticality
6
Loss of display
7
Navigation information
8
Propusion system parameter displays
9
Crew alerting display
10
Flight crew procedures
11
Information display
12
Information display colours

Boeing 737 Electronix Flight Instrument System (EFIS)

1
Introduction
2
System architecture
3
EFIS symbol generator
4
EFIS control panel
5
EADI controls
6
EHSI controls
7
Electronic attitude direction indicator
8
EADI general
9
Attitude display
10
Mode annunciations
11
Flight director (F/D) commands
12
Glideslope (G/S) and localiser (LOC) deviatiojn displays
13
ILS deviation warning
14
Rising runway symbol
15
Attitude comparator
16
Digital radio altitude and decision height
17
Mach display
18
Groundspeed display
19
Pitch limit symbol
20
Speed tape scale
21
Digital airspeed readout
22
Airspeed trend arrow
23
Command speed
24
Max operating speed (Vmo/Mmo or Gear/Flap Placards)
25
high speed buffet margin
26
Next flap placard speed
27
Flaps up manoeuvring speed
28
Decision speed
29
VR ( Rotation) Speed
30
VREF (Reference Speed)
31
Minimum flap retraction speed
32
Minimum manowuvring speed
33
Stick shaker speed
34
EADI symbols
35
Radio altitude dial
36
speed tapes
37
EFIS – EADi fault displays
38
Operation
39
EADI failure flags and annunciations
40
EFIS typical EHSI centre map – map and plan displays
41
General
42
EHSI display orientation
43
PLAN mode
44
Features of PLAN mode
45
MAP and CTR MAP modes
46
Features of MAP mode
47
Features of CENTER MAP mode
48
NAV mode displays
49
Features of EXPANDED NAVIGATION mode
50
Features of FULL NAVIGATION mode
51
VOR and ILS displays
52
Expanded VOR mode
53
Full rose VOR mode
54
Expanded ILS mode
55
EHSI symbology
56
EFIS symbols
57
EHSI system failure flags and annunciation
58
Range disagreement annunciations
59
Weather annunciations
60
Instrument transfer switching
61
Light sensing and brightness controls

Boeing 737 Flight Managment Computer (FMC)

1
General
2
Operation overview
3
CDU function
4
CDU page display general
5
Function and mode keys
6
Line select keys
7
Keyboard
8
CDU page display
9
Page status
10
Function and mode keys
11
Lights
12
System components
13
Data bases
14
Operation
15
Lateral navigation
16
Vertical navigation
17
Required time of arrival (RTA) navigation
18
Radio tuning
19
Electrical power
20
Terminology
21
Executing
22
Inactive
23
Active
24
Page status
25
Modification
26
Initialization
27
Line select
28
Enter
29
Access
30
Propagate
31
Page concepts
32
General
33
Page sequence logic
34
CDU messages
35
Waypoint
36
Waypoint identifiers
37
Created waypoints
38
Conditional waypoints

Boeing 737 Navigation Equipment And Flight Management

1
Inertial reference system
2
IRS mode selector
3
Align light (White)
4
Fault light (Amber)
5
On DC light (Amber)
6
DC fail light (Amber)
7
Inertial reference system
8
General
9
Alignment
10
Alignment on the ground
11
Fast realignment on the ground
12
Loss of alignment
13
IRS display unit
14
Intrument transfer switch/instrument transfer switch light
15
Radio distance magnrtic indicator
16
VOR/ILS navigation
17
Marker beacon switch
18
ADF navigation
19
SSR transponder selections
20
Weather radar
21
Radio altimeters

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