Navigation-Notes

DIRECTION LATITUDE & LONGITUDE

1
The Shape of the EARTH
2
THE POLES
3
BASIC DIRECTION ON THE EARTH
4
SEXAGESIMAL SYTEM/ TRUE DIRECTION
5
Reciprocal directions
6
Position On the Earth /Position Reference System
7
CIRCLES ON THE EARTH
8
THE EQATOR
9
The Meridians
10
The Prime (or Greenwich) Meridian
11
Small Circle
12
Parallels of Latitude
13
GRATICULE
14
Angular Measurements
15
Latitude (Geocentric Latitude)
16
Geocentric and Geodetic Latitude
17
LONGITUDE
18
LONGITUDE & LATITUDE
19
Conversion of Latitude and Longitude to Distance on the Earth
20
GREAT CIRCLE VERTIES

Great Circles Rhumb Lines & Directions on the Earth

1
Great Circle
2
Rhumb Line
3
Rhumb line Important Points
4
Lines Which Are Both Great Circles and Rhumb Lines
5
GREAT CIRCLE DIRECTION
6
Distance on the Earth
7
VARIATIONS IN THE LENGTH OF A NAUTICAL MILE
8
GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES

Earth Magnetism

1
INTRODUCTION
2
MAGNETIC NORTH
3
MAGNETIC DIRECTION
4
VARIATION
5
MAGNETIC DIP ANGLE
6
DEVIATION
7
APPLICATION OF VARIATION AND DEVIATION

CONVERGENCY AND CONVERSION ANGLE

1
INTRODUCTION
2
CONVERGENCY
3
Convergency and the Great Circle Track
4
Conversion Angle

DEPARTURE

1
DEPARTURE

1 IN 60 RULE

1
Application of the 1 in 60 rule

SCALE

1
SCALE

GENERAL CHART PROPERTIES

1
CHART PREOJECTION GENERAL
2
PERSPECTIVE” AND “NON-PERSPECTIVE” CHARTS
3
THE “REDUCED EARTH”
4
TYPES OF PROJECTION
5
AZIMUTHAL/PLANE PROJECTIONS
6
CYLINDRICAL PROJECTIONS
7
Conical Projections
8
PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL CHART AND REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE
9
NAVIGATION REQUIREMENTS
10
ORTHOMORPHISM / CONFORMALITY

MERCATOR CHARTS – PROPERTIES

1
Introduction
2
MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS

OBLIQUE MERCATOR – PROPERTIES

1
OBLIQUE MERCATOR

TRANSVERSE MERCATOR

1
INTRODUCTION
2
USES OF A TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTION

LAMBERT’S CONFORMAL CHART

1
THE SIMPLE CONIC PROJECTION
2
Lambert’s Conical Orthomorphic Projection
3
Lambert Chart Convergence
4
The advantages of a Lambert chart
5
The Disadvantages of the Lambert Chart
6
Lines Parallel at Mid-meridian

THE POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC CHART

1
INTRODUCTION
2
POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC GRATICULE
3
CONCEPT OF CO-LATITUDE
4
Polar Stereographic Properties
5
ORTHOMORPHISM
6
SHAPES
7
CHART CONVERGENCE
8
RHUMB LINES & GREAT CIRCLES

TIME

1
TIME BASICS
2
SOLAR SYSTEM – PLANETARY ORBITS – KEPLER’S LAWS
3
THE SEASONS
4
MEASUREMENT OF DAYS AND YEARS
5
HOUR ANGLE
6
Conversion of Arc (Angle) to Time
7
LOCAL MEAN TIME
8
GMT (UTC, ZULU)
9
STANDARD TIME
10
ZONE TIME
11
SUMMER TIME/DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (DST)
12
INTERNATIONAL DAY LINE
13
TWILIGHT

POINT OF EQUAL TIME

1
INTRODUCTION
2
DERIVATION OF FORMULA
3
THE EFFECT OF WIND ON THE POSITION OF THE PET

POINT OF SAFE RETURN

1
INTRODUCTION
2
THE EFFECT OF WIND ON THE LOCATION OF THE PSR
3
DERIVATION OF FORMULA

PERFORMANCE NOTES

1
NOTES

V SPEEDS

1
V SPEEDS

PERFORMANCE CLASSIFICATION

1
INTRODUCTION
2
TAKE OFF
3
VARIOUS TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE THE AVAILABLE DISTANCE AT AN AERODROME
4
TAKE-OFF CLIMB

Radio Navigation

1
RADIO AIDS
2
POLARISATION
3
Period (T)
4
Wavelength(入 )
5
FREQUENCY BAND
6
PHASE COMPARISON
7
PROPAGATION OF RADIO WAVES
8
TYPES OF PROPAGATION
9
MODULATION
10
Heterodyning
11
ANTENNAE
12
DOPPLER’S EFFECT
13
VDF VERY HIGH FREQUENCY DIRECTION FINDER
14
ADF AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER
15
NDB NON DIRECTIONAL BEACON
16
NDB NON DIRECTIONAL BEACON
17
BEAT FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR
18
SUMMARY
19
VOR VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI DIRECTIONAL RANGE
20
FACTORS AFFECTING VOR
21
OBS (OMNI BEARING SELECTOR)
22
ILS INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM
23
ILS CAT
24
ILS PROTECTED AREAS
25
SUMMARY
26
MLS MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM
27
DME DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT
28
RADAR RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING
29
PRIMARY RADAR
30
AWR AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
31
SSR SECONDARY SURVILLENCE RADAR
32
TCAS TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM
33
GPS GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
34
HOLDING PATTERN

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